Meadowlark Gallery: Blog

So the man looked at me after I stated we were going to start a blog on our website with a little disbelief and tongue in cheek hysteria. There will be subjects from the various intricacies of the art market to even some sporting and hunting activities and, or events for your enjoyment with a little photography. As the man once said on the radio, stay tuned.

Pending posts.

In 1938, Richard Bishop collaborated with Edgar Queeny to produce the book, Prairie Wings. This book is still in print today for it is the ultimate guide to any aspiring waterfowl artist. Richard Bishop was able to use photography to prove the characteristics of waterfowl. For example, the first wing beat of a duck on water is down.

Posted: April 5, 2020

A Decoy Remembered

Introduction

The old double barrel shotgun did not look like much, but to me, it was the ultimate. I believe it was a Stevens 311A twelve gauge shotgun. My father showed me a dent in the barrel. My grandfather had confiscated it when he was the Beaverhead County Sheriff in 1948. This shotgun to others may have not looked like much but it carried the characteristics I still enjoy today. It had double triggers and side-by-side barrels. Sadly it developed a malfunction where it had to go down the road with deep regrets.

My father felt duck hunting was a waste of time for the limits were much lower in the 1960’s than they had been in the 1940s. I had a school chum who took me out to a lake in the valley. There were several canals running into it. The word was it had been an old sewage lake for the town of Helena. The lake still was good for duck hunting and I can remember my first outing. Unfortunately for a brownish duck who at the time I could not even identify his swimming up the ditch ended. It went home to my mother who showed me how to pick it and I believe we cooked it and survived.

My earliest memories of duck decoys came from reading a Herter’s catalog. The reader became totally immersed on the recommendations of decoy spread placements. They avidly recommended a Mallard spread of about one hundred birds, followed by fifty to sixty goose decoys with the addition of confidence decoys such as coots. Unfortunately for me as the young reader the numbers and costs were way over my head.

One day at the local drug store I noticed they had decoys for sale. The economics were still against me until the store owner noticed the lack of sales. Finally they dropped the price to about eleven or twelve dollars so my parents allowed me to buy one box of a dozen. The next week the drug store dropped the price again to just over five dollars per box but my parents felt I had enough decoys. Little would they know how my interest in decoys had just begun.

As a young person in my teens I soon learned about decoy placement, numbers of decoys and the use of confidence decoying. On the smaller waters and inlets showed the need for not a lot of decoys but good placement. My memory of placing decoys out in the dark with my trusty flashlight was always an eye opener. The lessons included while placing decoys in the dark of just kicking the water and having teal land within inches of my feet.

Waterfowl hunting will always be a special place in my heart.

 

The Beginning

Edward Mason was a professor of agriculture at the University of Dublin in Ireland.(1) He decided to come to the United States with his wife and five children. Edward Mason was an accountant from 1855 to 1861 and became the agriculture editor of the Detroit Tribune.(2) William J. Mason was one of four sons and had a strong interest in the hunting and fishing like his father.

William J. Mason was an avid sportsman and became a member of the Old Club on Harsens Island in the St. Clair River delta area. He was reported to also be one of the top shots in the club.(3) In a little shed behind his parents home at 49 Tuscola Street, he started making decoys.(4) From a 1913 ad it indicated the company was established in 1889.(5)

By 1872, William J. Mason was listed as a clerk in the John E. Long Sporting Goods Company of 133 Jefferson Avenue.(6) The W. J. Mason Company by 1882 had reorganized the business location.(7) The W. J. Mason Company consisted of the partnership of William J. Mason and George E. Avery. The business moved in 1888 to Woodward Avenue but the partnership dissolved.(8)

Two grades of decoys were produced by William J. Mason from his early days of carving decoys. The Premier Grade was a little larger with a notch on the top of the bill, flat bottom and a hollow or solid body. The notch was characteristic of a Mason decoy.

The Challenge Grade was offered as a solid or hollow body with a rounded base with an inscribed line between the bill and the face but no notch.

 

Old duck hunters never die, they just smell that way.

One morning I decided to grab a small bag of decoys to check out a new site for a possible blind. I had assumed the bag contained mallard decoys. After walking a good distance, I reached into the bag to put out the decoys and realized they were actually teal decoys which were much smaller. Not wanting to go back I put out the teal decoys and decided to just watch. After a little bit, to my amazement I heard some geese calling. I looked up to watch the geese turn into the decoys.

 

There are two views of the Masons Decoy Factory, one which was around 1900. The duck hunting scenario of 1900 was split between those of the commercial hunters and the hunting as a personal choice. Sadly in 1900, duck hunting on a commercial basis soon caused the need for waterfowl hunting regulations. The second view is of the collector primarily today but there are still stories of finding wood decoys in a duck hunter’s rig. Sometimes the basic knowledge about decoys is simply of it being a toll for duck hunting and not collectibility.

The Masons Decoy Factory was moved in 1903.(9) At this location of 456 Brooklyn Avenue, William J. Mason installed tracing lathes to produced the bodies and rough turn out the heads which then were finished by hand.(10) There were two additional men where one concentrated on the painting of the decoys and the other split cedar logs into blocks.

With the increase in mail orders, William J. Mason also leased a rear two story space from the Nicholson Lumber Company at 456-464 Brooklyn Avenue.

The building was small and had two floors. The lathes, band saw and sander were downstairs, while upstairs the painting and packing was done.(11)

Wagons brought in the cedar logs which were then cut into workable lengths. Patterns were used when cutting the bodies on the lathes. Heads were rough-turned and sanded later. Before taking the decoys upstairs in crates, the head and body were joined.

Upstairs there were three benches with an apprentice and a senior painter at each bench. Drying racks were on each side of the painters. In addition, this is where the puttyers did their work. They filled in around the necks of the Standard Grade decoys with white putty. The fit of the head and body on these grades wasn’t perfect, so the putty gave the neck a smooth look. The apprentices put on the primer coat of white lead, linseed oil, and turpentine after the puttying was done and put them on the racks to dry. The senior painter first painted the body with the correct plumage, let it dry, and then painted the head. The glass eyes were added last. Before insertion, the eyes were painted on the back.

On hollow-bodied Premier and Challenge models, white lead sealed the two body parts before being nailed together. When the decoys were completely finished, they were balanced by floating them in a wash tub and adding the lead weight.

All decoys were wrapped separately in newspaper and packed by the dozen in wooden crates. The Premiers had the newspaper they were wrapped in coated with linseed oil. This kept the paper from sticking to the paint. A horse and wagon picked the crates up at the factory.(12)

These reflections of the shop were from an apprentice painter who worked there from 1904 to 1906. The employees worked six ten hour days a week for a dollar a day. There was no vacation time or sick leave.(13) All of the lathe turned Mason decoys have been assumed to have been made after 1903 while all of the hand shaped ones were done pre-1903.

Russ Goldberger and I visited over the telephone about the production of the Masons Decoy Factory. Conceivably the production could have been about two hundred thousand decoys. Russ did not have a feel for why or why not certain models were purchased in the 1900s. Today on the collecting market the appeal for certain models is based upon new factors different from hunting. He went on further to talk about the sensual lines of the Premier and Challenge Grades.(14)

Now I am not disputing the comments of Russ but decoys to the duck hunter are one of the various tools in their arsenal. Duck decoys can be traced back to Egyptian times where waterfowl decoys were used on the Nile River. Native Americans in North America used primitive decoys long before the white man.

The Lovelock Cave(15) was conducive to the preservation of organic and inorganic material. Beings have occupied this area for over 4,000 years. In 1911, a fertilizer company hired two miners, David Pugh and James Hart, to search for bat guano to be used for fertilizer. They had taken out a top layer which weighed about 250 tons. The miners had found some artifacts but without a lot of significance. An archaeologist, L. L. Loud, in 1912 collected about 10,000 material remains without any comprehensive reporting.


Twelve years later Loud returned with M. R. Harrington. Paiute Indians assisted them in an attempt to recover more remains. After extensive digging to the base of the deposits they discovered a duck decoy cache. The cache included eight painted and feathered decoys and three unfinished decoys. They also found two bundles of animal traps. They had made the decoys from bundled tule, a long grass like herb, covered in feathers and painted.

In 1969, they dated the decoys with an accelerator mass spectrometry dating technique. The two decoys used were dated at 2,080 and 2,250 BP (before physics). Before physics(16) refers to the time before nuclear weapons testing artificially altered the proportion of the carbon isotopes in the atmosphere, making dating after that time likely to be unreliable.

The commercial waterfowl hunters in the 1800s were concerned with putting out the most decoys possible for the result was beneficial to the harvest. I am sure costs and portability of wood decoys became a real variable during this period.

William J. Mason died from rheumatic fever on November 29, 1905.(17) At the time of his death, the Masons Decoy Factory only produced the Premier and Challenge grades.(18)

Herbert W. Mason was the son of William J. Mason and had done the clerical work of the factory.(19) Herbert moved the factory again and continued the business until 1924.(20) The Standard Grade model was developed by Herbert.(21) The Standard Grade or Detroit Standard Grade was a solid body, rounded and offered in three styles. The styles or grades were titled as No. 1 Glasseye, No. 2 Tackeye, and No. 3 Painted Eye.

The basic pricing in 1905(22) was as follows:
Premier Model (Hollow): $12.00 per dozen
Challenge Model (Solid): $6.50 per dozen
Challenge Model (Hollow): $8.00 per dozen
Standard Grades
No. 1 Glasseye $5.50 per dozen
No. 2 Tackeye $4.75 per dozen
No. 3 Painted Eye $4.00 per dozen

Herbert W. Mason developed during his tenure a strong mail order market. The Mason company became a volume supplier to Sears Roebuck. Another major supplier was Von Lengercke and Antoine of Chicago which was later acquired by Abercrombie and Fitch.(23) The introduction of the three types of the Standard Grade also included lower pricing for the market.(24) With the above price structure of the Standard Grades discounted at over half to a third of the Premier and Challenge Grades it was an easy decision for the hunter.

Another move was made to 5935 Milford, Detroit, Michigan.(25) As the business continued to improve another move was made to the final location of 5971-5975 Milford Street.(26)

The business of building decoys and wooden spokes had still been a seasonal one.(27) Herbert W. Mason and a friend, Fred W. Rinshed, was a paint salesman.(28) They were informed of the Ford Motor Company wanting to buy paint direct from a manufacturer.(29) After hiring a chemist, the two men jumped into the unknown industry under the name of Rinshed-Mason Company in 1919(30) became the largest outside paint supplier to the Ford Motor Company.

Joseph R. Mason was another son of Herbert W. Mason who recalled,

As a young fellow I remember the overhead belt lines and banks of wood lathes. The decoy bodies were turned on the lathes, using a model to trace from. The heads were hand made. All were hand painted, with conventional paint. In spite of some opinion to the contrary, there was nothing special about the paint, and it was pure coincidence that my father got into the paint business. It was not because he needed it for the decoys.(31)

Eventually the decoy area of the factory disappeared up into the attic above the paint laboratory prior to World War II. After World War II,(32) the attic was empty.

As paint manufacturing took over the old duck shop, fine Premiers were used to hammer down the lids of five gallon paint cans. Others were put in trash cans and sent to the dump for incineration.(33)

And as was the case ...

the Ford Motor Company

had a better idea.

______________________

(1) Mason Decoys Byron Cheever; Hillcrest Publications, Spanish Fork, Utah; 1974, page 5.
(2) Ibid., page 5.
(3) Ibid., page 6.
(4) Waterfowl Decoys of Michigan and the Lake St. Clair Region, collected and edited by Clune Walsh, Jr. and Lowell G. Jackson; Gale Graphics, Detroit, Michigan, 1983, page 51.
(5) Ibid., page 51.
(6) Mason Decoys, A Complete Pictorial Guide, Updated Edition by Russ J. Goldberger and Alan G. Haid; Decoy Magazine, Lewes, Delaware, 2014; page 9.
(7) Ibid., page 10.
(8) Ibid., page 10.
(9) Waterfowl Decoys of Michigan and the Lake St. Clair Region, collected and edited by Clune Walsh, Jr. and Lowell G. Jackson; Gale Graphics, Detroit, Michigan, 1983; page 52.
(10) Mason Decoys by Byron Cheever; Hillcrest Publications, Spanish Fork, Utah, 1974; page 7.
(11) Factory Decoys of Mason, Stevens, Dodge, and Peterson by John and Shirley Delph; Schiffer Publishing Limited, Exton, Pennsylvania; 1980; page 12.
(12) Ibid., page 12.
A dozen decoys from the Mason’s Decoy Factory consisted of four hens and eight drakes. Today, a dozen decoys are evenly split between hens and drakes.
(13) Ibid., page 12.
(14) Telephone interview with Russ Goldberger.
(15) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lovelock_Cave
(16) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Before_Present
(17) Waterfowl Decoys of Michigan and the Lake St. Clair Region, collected and edited by Clune Walsh, Jr. and Lowell G. Jackson; Gale Graphics, Detroit, Michigan, 1983; page 52.
(18) Mason Decoys, A Complete Pictorial Guide, Updated Edition by Russ J. Goldberger and Alan G. Haid; Decoy Magazine, Lewes, Delaware, 2014; page 12.
(19) Waterfowl Decoys of Michigan and the Lake St. Clair Region, collected and edited by Clune Walsh, Jr. and Lowell G. Jackson; Gale Graphics, Detroit, Michigan, 1983; page 52.
(20) Ibid., page 52.
(21) Mason Decoys, A Complete Pictorial Guide, Updated Edition by Russ J. Goldberger and Alan G. Haid; Decoy Magazine, Lewes, Delaware, 2014; page 12.
(22) Ibid., page 12.
(23) Waterfowl Decoys of Michigan and the Lake St. Clair Region, collected and edited by Clune Walsh, Jr. and Lowell G. Jackson; Gale Graphics, Detroit, Michigan, 1983; page 52.
(24) Mason Decoys, A Complete Pictorial Guide, Updated Edition by Russ J. Goldberger and Alan G. Haid; Decoy Magazine, Lewes, Delaware, 2014; page 12.
(25) Mason Decoys by Byron Cheever; Hillcrest Publications, Spanish Fork, Utah, 1974; page 7.
(26) Mason Decoys, A Complete Pictorial Guide, Updated Edition by Russ J. Goldberger and Alan G. Haid; Decoy Magazine, Lewes, Delaware, 2014; page 12-13.
(27) Mason Decoys by Byron Cheever; Hillcrest Publications, Spanish Fork, Utah, 1974; page 7.
(28) Ibid., page 7.
(29) Ibid., page 7.
(30) Ibid., page 7.
(31) Ibid., page 7.
(32) Ibid., page 8.
(33) Ibid., page 9.

Bibliography

Factory Decoys of Mason, Stevens, Dodge, and Peterson by John and Shirley Delph; Schiffer Publishing Limited, Exton, Pennsylvania; 1980.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lovelock_Cave

Mason Decoys by Byron Cheever; Hillcrest Publications, Spanish Fork, Utah; 1974.

Mason Decoys, A Complete Pictorial Guide, Updated Edition by Russ J. Goldberger and Alan G. Haid; Decoy Magazine, Lewes, Delaware, 2014.

Telephone interview with Russ Goldberger. Russ and Karen Goldberger have RJG Antiques in Rye, New Hampshire.

Waterfowl Decoys of Michigan and the Lake St. Clair Region, collected and edited by Clune Walsh, Jr., and Lowell G. Jackson; Gale Graphics, Detroit, Michigan, 1983.

Posted: August 19, 2019

For a person of the 1700 and 1800's, to go outside for a walk always consisted of some basic elements which were quintessential to basic existence. Those basic elements were a firearm, a possibles bag and a powder horn. As those walks continued in the eastern United States and then from St. Louis west, the basic elements were extended to include possibly another firearm, a knife, and a hatchet for survival.

Laura F. Fry is the Senior Curator and Curator of American Art at the Gilcrease Museum in Tulsa, Oklahoma. For her contribution in “Return to Calgary: Charles M. Russell and the 1919 Victory Stampede” exhibition at the C. M. Russell Museum in Great Falls, Montana, she sadly stepped out of her element by casting aspersions. Her citations included the biography of Kit Carson by Hampton Sides in 2006. (“Blood and Thunder: The Epic Story of Kit Carson and the Conquest of the American West” by Hampton Sides; Anchor Books, New York, 2006.) The citations from the Sides book were interesting for they included pages 9 and 10, however, they list the entire book as 460 pages. On the advertising of the paperback trade copy of this book, it enlightens the reader with “How the American West was really won, an epic tale of shame and glory.”

Cecil Brooks was once asked about learning about black powder firearms and he answered by stating the only way to learn was to shoot them. These supposed sources most likely have never shot a reproduction black powder firearm of any sort. Just imagine for a moment of not being on a typical shooting range but on the Western frontier of the mid 1800's. Most of your interaction with the society at this time was at a maximum range of sixty yards with little time for discussion or diplomatic insights offered.

I would allow myself to step out on a limb at this juncture in offering my opinion. For I am sure Kit Carson could have been described as a natural born killer and extremely brutal. (Ibid.) For if we were placed in the same time period of history with those basic elements, we would have been natural born killers and extremely brutal as well.

Posted: August 18, 2019

During all of the years of doing research and marketing various artists one variable is of most interest. Sure there are the sales and then the interesting times of dealing in historical or deceased work. Still, the most interesting is when works come out on the market purporting to be by a certain artist and are simply forgeries. Forgeries coming out on the market are a good indication of strong sales for the designated artist.

I know call me weird, strange or even obsessed but forgeries are very interesting. In the late 1980's I was fortunate to meet and develop a great friendship with the renowned expert on Edward Borein, Harold Davidson. He once described and wrote in one of his books about the “Brotherhood of Forgers, Fakers and Crooks.” Harold was often called upon to authenticate works by Edward Borein. He would often comment to me how the forgers were just not well educated. His authentication fee was $200.00 which was very respectable for the times. Often certain attempts would continue to appear and want his authentication. He told me the authentication fee income was better than Social Security. One item kept coming up repeatedly for his review. After he had given his opinion, the requester listened intently and took the item and tore it up. Harold said this action was definition of class.

Several years ago I commented to an auction partnership on how a certain painting supposedly done by Gollings was definitely not true. The painting depicted a canoe pulled up on the shore under or near a large fir tree. The partners commented how if the buyer determined the painting was not real then they would refund later his money.

From time to time when I see an item purporting to be done by Gollings, I pick up the phone to call the auction house on the west coast. An upcoming sale in 2015 had an item proclaiming to have been done by Gollings. Of course, the item had a large signature in a red tone with the name Gollings. Sadly the palette, stature, drawing capabilities and candor were not those of the artist Bill Gollings.

I can remember how the lady at the auction house said they would change the description to being inspired by the artist or done in a time of the artist. After stating my thoughts I left the lady with her conscience and the work hammered a price of $793.00.

Scrolling through an upcoming auction, I paused to review one lot for the painting looked very familiar. I kept looking at this painting done by Carl Moon (1879-1948), and sure enough it was the model for what a forger had used in 2015.

I had another Gollings owner who explained how the artist did not sign their painting on the front but on the back upon request. They told me how the work had been commissioned with the signature of the artist to be done on the reverse side of the canvas. Ah yes I thought as the man whom I had known for almost thirty years clarified how he truly thought of me. Of course after he revealed photographs of the back of the canvas, it was clear the writing was not of the artist.

Yes I will still call auction houses when they have a questionable work for sale. The old adage often used by auctioneers is how they sell the item as is. This industry needs to do more but it will never be the case. A supposed signed work does not constitute its legitimacy in the market.
So the next time one is tempted to wave their bidding number, make sure they have done the due diligence. Happy bidding.

 

Posted: July 22, 2019

Often young artists will talk to me about why or why should they not use an art gallery. The answer is simple for those artists who use an art gallery and are loyal to the gallery system will show a stronger market for the future. Unfortunately there are always the so called big name contemporary, i.e., living artists, who supposedly do not need an art gallery. They will tell folks how they want to deal directly with the customer. Also some customers will state how they like dealing direct with an artist. Sadly the objectivity of purchases becomes lacking and often later those same collectors will expound on how they will never buy artwork again. The role of an ethical art dealer is a valuable tool for both the artist and potential buyer. The old adage of the starving artist is not a scenario for the potential collector to place themselves with for a transaction.

Over many years after the death of an artist, one will find how the market is confused if not significantly diluted. For many years after LeRoy Greene’s death in 1974, the market received inflated and vague pricing as to his work for there was little gallery representation. The collector found they could go out upon the market and find similar works at less dollars by contemporary artists.

Slowly we have brought the market back to being a reliable area for the works of LeRoy Greene. At one time some family members felt they should hold back his paintings for the future. I tried tactfully to explain how marketing of his works was more credible than waiting forty years to bring paintings out for sale.

LeRoy Greene’s work was just wonderful and has a pleasing eye for either the home or office. From time to time we regularly receive his paintings so just stay tuned for the future. If you are interested in being contacted about an offering please email me.

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